Moreover, meditations and devotions on the different aspects of the Virgin Mary's role within the life of Jesus led to additional titles such as Our Lady of Sorrows. It was the most popular among the styles of the early Trecento artistic period. These include belief in her virginal conception of Jesustaught by the First Council of Nicaea in While theft is one way that Byzantine images made their way West to Italy, the relationship between Byzantine icons and Italian images of the Madonna is far more rich and complicated.
In mosaics in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, dating fromjust after the council, she is not yet shown with a haloand she is also not shown in Nativity scenes at this date, though she is included in the Adoration of the Magi. This is clearly made for the private devotion of a Christian wealthy enough to hire one of the most important Italian artists of his day.
The dogma of the Assumption of Marydefined by Pope Pius XII instates that, at the end of her earthly life, she was assumed into heavenly glory body and soul. History[ edit ] Painting of the Madonna and Child by an anonymous Italian, first half of 19th century The earliest representation of the Madonna and Child may be the wall painting in the Catacomb of PriscillaRome, in which the seated Madonna suckles the Child, who turns his head to gaze at the spectator.