One such policy that has been implemented by several EME central banks is to offer foreign exchange protection to investors without affecting the level of international reserves.
For this and other reasons, developing countries that want to establish credible monetary policy may institute a currency board or adopt dollarization. EMEs' exposure to financial channels of the exchange rate arises from two key features of their financial structure: i EME borrowers, especially corporates, rely heavily on foreign currency borrowing; and ii foreign investors' large holdings of EME local currency sovereign debt.
The mere possibility of such a scenario already makes speculative runs more likely. When financial stability considerations are factored in, the impact of exchange rates is greater still.
Such flows have taken the form of portfolio investments, including corporate and sovereign debt foreign direct investment, and bank lending, but also trade financing. Transparency[ edit ] Beginning with New Zealand incentral banks began adopting formal, public inflation targets with the goal of making the outcomes, if not the process, of monetary policy more transparent.This has been a phenomenon during the past several years of inordinately accommodative monetary policies in AEs, and will continue into the future as accommodation persists but also when it is reversed. At a basic level, it's because the exchange rate is a core determinant of the nominal anchor in a small open economy. In order to deal with this challenge, EME central banks may need to consider whether to further develop non-orthodox balance sheet policies to deal with stock adjustments, such as asset purchases or asset swaps similar in nature to the measures launched by major AE central banks to bring down long-term interest rates once short rates hit the lower bound. However, in some special cases there may also be a monetary union even if there is more than a single currency, if the currencies have a fixed exchange rate with each other. It's worth remembering that a large depreciation and economic downturn are often followed by a sharp rise in inflation, despite the slowdown in economic activity. But the impact on inflation of a change in the exchange rate depends on what else is going on in the economy. The main reason is that the behaviour of the exchange rate can fundamentally affect the dynamics of inflation and the capacity of monetary policy to produce the expected results. They can enhance the resilience of the economy and mitigate the build-up of vulnerabilities. EME central banks have risen to this challenge through their innovative use of additional policy instruments.
Their parity relationships are fixed irrevocably, without admitting fluctuation of exchange rates. For this purpose, the reserve accumulation itself does not even need to have an influence on the exchange rate.
Monetary policy is the final outcome of a complex interaction between monetary institutions, central banker preferences and policy rules, and hence human decision-making plays an important role.
During the crisis, many inflation-anchoring countries reached the lower bound of zero rates, resulting in inflation rates decreasing to almost zero or even deflation.