It does not seem plausible, from our experience, that we do make inferences from "ideas" or "sense data" or brain states when we know something perceptually. First, I will discuss the causal theory of knowledge by providing a definition of said theory along with its addition to the traditional analysis of knowledge TAK.
Rather, the epistemologist's job was to provide definitions of concepts such as justification and knowledge independently of any assumed causal connections with the external world, and then to show how, from such analyses, one could argue 'internally' that such causal connections exist. Nogot, owns a Ford.Note that this is offered only as a condition for empirical knowledge. Goldman, Alvin I. Here, it seems as though Goldman has begun to reach for far-out connections between subjects and propositions. Logical Connections Lehrer's specific example shows the need for a further refinement in Goldman's account of knowledge. Knowledge exists, says Goldman, if and only if the belief is justified by a reaction to the accepted fact. As in the case of perception, however, I shall not try to describe this process in detail. A different analysis was proposed as a solution to the Gettier problem by Michael Clark, who focuses on the "internal" grounds S has for believing p.
The passage from the belief that T believes that p to S's own belief that p requires more risky background beliefs.
Goldman proposed a modification of the early causal theory in which it is required not only that the individual's belief that p be caused in an appropriate way by the state of affairs p, but also that the individual be a reliable discriminator with respect to p and other, alternative states of affairs that might causally substitute for p.
The causal process that begins with physical object ends in the production of some change in the brain or in the mind. Perception Perception is probably the simplest type of causal connection leading to knowledge.
The process by which someone reasons explicitly is also be pretty clearly a causal process. Introduction: Goldman will deal with cases of empirical knowledge—he believes that the Gettier counter-examples to the JTB thesis apply only to such knowledge claims.
Successors to the causal theory of knowing The causal theory of knowing still survives in many of the externalist theories which have arisen since Goldman's early proposal.
Formulation of the causal theory of knowing In the internalist-oriented environment which dominated epistemology from the time of Descartes until the middle of the twentieth century, it was not considered appropriate to refer to the causal history of a belief in providing an analysis, or definition, of the positive epistemic status of that belief see Internalism and externalism in epistemology.
Many philosophers have thought that we cannot have knowledge of the object unless we have knowledge that there is a causal relation between the object and the brain or mind.
There are also difficult examples that raise doubts about the sufficiency of the 'appropriate causal connection' requirement, even in its most refined forms.
He knows about Trudy, but rashly discounts the possibility that she is the one he sees.