Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. Indianapolis: Hackett. You should normally aim to cite published references, and should not cite a lecture or handout simply to avoid searching the literature for yourself.
Henrich a and Henrich b. Guide to Referencing for Coursework UCL Philosophy Department information for current students Many different ways of giving references are used in academic publications. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.
When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. If you use material from a discussion in your paper, cite it as a personal communication in your text, and do not list it at the end.
Include a title, if any, or a short descriptive word to identify the format. Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscriptare placed at the appropriate point in the text.
If you refer to a lecture or performance in your paper, cite it as such in your text, and do not list it at the end. For your guidance, we suggest the following, which is a simplified version of the Harvard system: 1.
All systems are acceptable, provided they are applied consistently.